R:\Google Drive\Docs\Amateur Radio\Aerials\160M\Brian G4DVS very long log of progress on 160M.docx                      

Aerials=

27/5/14   First ToDo----------------------------------------   160M  vertical

I use Hack Green SDR to do long term comparisons of 160M aerials.  In all these todo's  will see HG with  an number in -db   Always during daytime.  Always using 5W carrier  FM 

List of web sites=   see Note    AR 160M Aerial web sites=

Google   +160 meter +vertical +loop antenna

http://www.hamuniverse.com/k6mm160metervertical.html             160 Meter helical wound Vertical

http://www.g4nsj.co.uk/which.shtml     NVIS  Near vertical incident signal

http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/david.brewerton/160-base-loaded-inv-L.htm                 80m Inverted-L (Base-loaded for 160m)

http://www.eham.net/articles/21292                 Vertical arranged loop  Inner of coax to first vertical section.           50ft vertical segment the impedance is about 15 ohms

http://n1su.com/loop.html       About   574'

http://radio-amador.net/pipermail/cluster/attachments/20140401/81abcec6/PWOutOfThinAir1980.pdf

http://www.eham.net/ehamforum/smf/index.php?topic=12114.0;wap2

http://www.k6mm.com/antennas/160-pvrcwebinar.pdf

http://lists.contesting.com/_topband/2009-07/msg00058.html               Helically Wound Verticals          Not a great idea    seem to work  but not

http://www.seed-solutions.com/gregordy/Amateur%20Radio/Experimentation/160mVertical/VerticalIntro.htm

http://www.chadlane.co.uk/kingsdriving-in-use/?q=node/34

http://www.w0btu.com/160_meters.html           Inverted L   Raised radials     2 variable capacitors for tuning.

http://www.hamuniverse.com/kl7jrloopnotes.html       Loop antennae notes  by KL7JR  2012

http://www.wc7i.com/Vertical%20Theory%20p1.htm      Verticals

http://www.wc7i.com/Underground%20Radials%20pg1.htm     Radials  for verticals       leads to more  SWR Noise

http://topbandhams.com/tech-page/6-22-different-wire-antennas-for-the-160-meter-band           160m Inverted Delta Loop    86' across top          76' sides

https://pa0fri.home.xs4all.nl/Ant/Quad/quadeng.htm              Not that much

http://www.radioworks.com/nloop.html               Loops        not 160

http://www.yccc.org/Articles/double_l.htm          Double-L Antenna For 80/160               vertical ish              NO GROUND SYSTEM needed

http://www.iol.ie/~bravo/low_band_antennae.htm              Antennae for the Low Bands..80 and 160m                   ( Vertical "H" Dipole)               and Phased verticals.

-------------------------Comments

If it's more local contacts you want, then a good dipole or a loop is hard to beat. I have a dipole and have been able to work some DX with it, but it's rare.

 

Book    "Antennas and Techniques for Low Band DXing" by ON4UN

 

1st   Todo   continued.

31/5/14    Put a pulley for red  wire at top of centre tree in our wood.    At 47ft  - 14.326M  above ground.                Then 21'  - 6.04M  sloping wire

160M= 1/8 wave       80M= 1/4wave    40M= 1/2wave

---------- feeder - house to wood

CAT5E cable is 4 pairs of 100 ohm  impedance.       DC resistance 25 ohms / 1,000ft

Seen   1Mhz Attn=2    and   4Mhz Attn= 4.1

Each of the four pairs in a Cat 5 cable has differing precise number of twists per metre to minimize crosstalk between the pairs

Individual twist lengths

By altering the length of each twist, crosstalk is reduced, without affecting the characteristic impedance.[dubious – discuss] The distance per twist is commonly referred to as pitch.

Pair color          [cm] per turn     Turns per [m]

Green                         1.53                    65.2

Blue                           1.54                     64.8

Orange                       1.78                     56.2

Brown                        1.94                      51.7

I suppose you can also parallel two of the four pairs and that should make a 50 ohm transmission line. it would be interesting to make up a 100ft run with PL-259s and sweep for loss and VSWR. If I can find some time I might give it a try.

 

Cheap coax  ebay web 2    100M   £13.76   loss of RG-6 with a copper clad steel center conductor increases below 7 MHz because of skin effect.  Loss  RG6  seen 1.77db @5Mhz         7.44db @4000Mhz.              web15-  200ft  7 mHz   -1.414db   100w>72w                   200ft 3.7Mhz -1.0db  100>79W           200ft 1.9Mhz   -.731db  100>84.5w

 most RG6, the type the cable and satellite industries use, is very good stuff. I don't use it often because it's "stiff" (most of it has four shields and they are plated steel, plus the center conductor is copperclad steel, so it's nowhere near as flexible as say RG8X)            RG-6" is generally used to refer to coaxial cables with an 18 AWG center conductor and 75 ohm          typically has a copper-clad steel (CCS) center conductor and a combination aluminum foil/aluminum braid shield, typically with low coverage (about 60%)   Because of steel in core  loss starts to increase <7mhz

The loss of copper clad steel (CCS) center conductor RG-6 is somewhat higher than solid copper (SC) center conductor RG-6 on 1.8 and 3.5 MHz because the copper cladding is thinner than RF skin depth at those frequencies. The excess loss of CCS RG-6 is approximately 0.25 dB per 100 feet at 1.8 MHz.

foil shield cables do not usually withstand repeated flexing as well as braid-only shields

Used to have lots of  ur67 coax

RG58  is thin  high loss 50ohmn  copper screen OK for HF dipoles.    ebay 100M-£25        RG58C/U  50ohms     U means Utility       Ecomony usually means CCS      5.0OD   0.66Velocity factor       Loss per 10M 1.8db @ 100Mhz    7.6 @ 1Ghz    web15-  200ft  7 mHz   -2.134db   100w>61w

RG-213, you will only lose an additional .35 dB for a 2:1 SWR at 1.8 Mhz.

Bell wire or twin mains lead has an impedance of around 72 ohms.              Dave Borley  said is 300ohms    but that is for much wider spaced 300ohm ribbon feeder.

Bell wire feeder on floor to 50ohmn terminator a carier was S6.   when earthed at far end = S5,  with feeder connected to aerial=S7                 Bell wire= 75 ohms impedance.

http://www.rsgbshop.org/acatalog/PDF/Successful_Wire%20Ant_sample.pdf

 

http://www.robkalmeijer.nl/techniek/electronica/radiotechniek/hambladen/radcom/1994/11/page70/index.html                   160M  ferrite rod receive aerial.

http://www.w0btu.com/160_meters.html         Best 160M is inverted L    beats a low dipole

http://www.audiosystemsgroup.com/publish.htm          List of articles

http://www.audiosystemsgroup.com/CoaxChokesPPT.pdf                Ferrites BALUMs

http://www.dj0ip.de/vertical-antennas/160m-inv-l-on-18m-pole/         Inverted L  16M high            & a pdf   in  C:\D_Documents\Amateur Radio\Aerials\160M

---------------- Testing

4."Improvements to the rx noise bridge", R A Hubbs. W6BX1, and A F Doting, W6NKU. Ham Radio February 1977

Rule of thum. Radials same length as vertical.             I have used  4 x 120ft   2 in stream

An excellent coax choke for 1.8 to 7 MHz can be made by wrapping 16 turns (about 1.5m) of RG]142 Teflon coax, onto an FT]240]43 ferrite toroid.

-------------------------------------------------------   Using inverted L intrees   fed with   bell wire.

Hack green sdr  is 16Khz  lower than   FT-857  getting a good signal in,  can be heard with 5W.  

Cannot hear on  WebSDR receiver is located in Weert, in the southern part of The Netherlands, near the Belgium border.

Can just be heard on  WebSDR receiver on University of Technology Eindhoven.

----------------------------------------------------  Test using dummy load

Improved Paraffin cooled dummy load,  switch for 50 or 75 ohms.   On FT-857D  

On 1930khz  set to full 100W on packet  load set to 50ohmn.   SWR bridge shows Power= FSD   SWR= 0.      On new S meter for 857 show 2.6V.     Dummy load meter shows 3ma.

On 14Mhz       set to full 100W on packet  load set to 50ohmn.   SWR bridge set Power= FSD   SWR= 1.2.      On new S meter for 857 show 2.6V.     Dummy load meter shows 3ma.

On 28Mhz       set to full 100W on packet  load set to 50ohmn.   SWR bridge set Power= FSD   SWR= 1.5.      On new S meter for 857 show 2.6V.     Dummy load meter shows 2.8ma.

 

Dummy load set to 50 at far end measures 59 ohms   so  9 ohms wire resistance.

 

Transmit 100W  1930khz in house to dummy load shows 3ma on its meter.

Transmit 100W at house down bell wire to stream end into dummy load set to 50 ohms    SWR bridge   power shows 40  SWR 1.5       Power at dummy load meter = 1.2ma                     (less than half current)

Dummy load set to 75ohms at end     SWR bridge power shows 53  SWR 1.4       Power at dummy load meter = 1.8                               (A little more)

 

17/7/14   Added 20' long loading coil using 3" drain pipe bottom about 10' from ground to aerial.   Plus another 14" load coil below.    Also now using copper plate in stream.

FT857 running on a battery by aerial. Transmitting 5w carrier by aerial  Hack green SDR shows -51.7db  (lower is stronger)  or   S9+27db

Moved to In house 5W  Hack Green SDR shows -53.1db   S9+25

In house increase power till get same signal strength -51.7db  as 5W by aerial     Need 7W

In house 100W   SDR  shows  -41.2db   S9+35db

 

Experience has indicated that a section of wire approximately one half wavelength long, wound on an insulating form with a linear pitch (equal spacing between turns) will come close to yielding a resonant quarter wavelength. Therefore, an antenna for use on 160 meters would require approximately 260 feet of wire, when spirally wound on a support.

Continue on  todo       Aerials for FT-857D 2       Horz loops

9/8/14   Back on Vertical aerial.     Test of RG58U coax  At 50W   direct to dummy load 50ohms shows 2ma on meter.     Added 5 rolls of coax. now 1.7ma     Ratio 2/1.7 = 0.85

11/8/14  Put in RG58U coax all way to vertical aerial on North side.  Used self almagating tape for joints.    Using 5W  signal into Hack Green=  -52.8db              Need 6W to get same signal strength -51.7db  as 5W by aerial.                 Back to 5W  tried  LOT/balum   as 4:1 impedance step down  = 2:1 turns  at HG get -55.1db  worse,   and worse SWR.        Put back & hopeless -80db   found near SC at aerial end connector so cut off.  shorted here & measured DC resistance at house across cable = 4.3 ohms.    Back as was -52.7db         Retried 4:1 step down   -56.5db - same result.  Back as was -52.5db @5W.    100W = -39db   S9 + 35db     Nothing into HB9 http://websdr.fvzr.ch:8901/          Can just hear on Stafford  G4FPH http://www.160m.net/

---------------------------------------------------------------   was in 2nd todo        aerials for FT

24/7/14  google       low full wave horizontal loop aerial on 1.8MHz

 

An NVIS antenna configuration is a horizontally polarized (parallel with the surface of the earth) radiating element that is from 1/20th wavelength (?) to 1/4 wavelength above the ground. web 3   NVIS   That proximity to the ground forces the majority of the radiation to go straight up.

 

Overall efficiency of the antenna can be increased by placing a ground wire slightly longer than the antenna parallel to and directly underneath the antenna.   One source says that a single ground wire can provide antenna gain in the 3–6 dB range. [4] Another source indicates 2dB for a single wire and nearly 4 dB for multiple ground wires.  [5] Ground wires are more necessary when using lower dipoles over poor soils as without them considerable energy goes into heating the ground.

 

web 1   For a 160 meter loop, 1005 divided by 1.800 (lowest 160 meter frequency in MHz) = 558 feet. If using insulated wire, shorten the overall length by 4% (-22 feet). 558 feet minus 22 feet = 536 feet.

web 2        1005/Freq in MHz = length in feet. For 160 meters a full wave loop resonant at 1.9 MHz will be about 529 feet long                            Mine is 528' 5"

But I use 1.9MHZ   1005 / 1.9 = 528.94'      using insulated wire, shorten the overall length by 4% (-22 feet).  529 - 22 = 507 feet

web 4       feedpoint impedance of a full-wave loop in free space is aproximately 100-120 ? with a gain over a dipole of 1.35 dB. In the real world, installed at practical amateur heights (physically close to ground), the range of feedpoint impedance can be from 50-240 ?

 

23/7/14   Put green/yellow  earth wire along fencing on south side & joined to bell wire (2 parts shorted?)  on north side to make a big loop aerial.  Total = 4 ohms.(2.7 on 9/9/15)   Total length = 528ft 5"    Lousy SWR

26/7/14  Wired dummy load 145 ohm (for convert 75 to 50) not shorted to ground to a BNC connector to connect to loop aerial.   A diode voltage detector here.  Then via a 4:1 impedance ratio unbalanced to balanced.balun (not balum) on a LOT.    To get lowest voltage ie best SWR   Green/Yellow South direct to balumn,   Need about 150pf in series of bell wire.   5W into load gives 20V OC.   Into 50 ohmn drops to 4.3V.  Into loop drops to 6.9V  so Z of loop is about 90 ohms. 

TX straight thru to loop   5W    gives -72.5db at hack green     night get -70db              But poor swr  cannot increase power.

Maybe try out FET Linear which is more tolerant of high swr.   Yes gives  FSD on dummy load meter.      But then blew up!

 

9/9/15   Connected loop from 2014 up again.    Everything shorted at far end.    green/yellow  earth wire to Coax outer - DC resistance = 2.3 ohms   best use this,  but bit long in shack..      Green wire is 1 ohmn.

Bell wire is 3.4 ohm each part, 1.7 shorted.  So if use Bell shorted & Green= 2.7 ohms.         Coax screen is 1.3 ohm   centre is 2.5 ohm.          Paper measurements  in Amateur Radio folder


1/9/15   2nd ToDo

----------------------  New 436'  132Metres  loop from Back of shed

Use a line Output transformer core.  7 turns  to tranceiver.  5 - 15turns to aerial  with 10ohm resistor across to find resonance.    Large variable capacitor to resonate.

14/9/15  used 8 turns to tranceiver,  20t of enameled + 9t black stranded = 29t   +  80pf series to get a good SWR  gives -66.5 into Hack Green on 1925khz.

 

4/10/15   Last week put up a new loop.  From rear of big shed, North fence, just under oak tree, of 47' tree used for vertical, Trees just over brook,  past 80' poplar, up most sotherly 50' tree to 45' level, down to fence past small sheds & grenhouses to row of 8 10' fir trees,  under lawn using 90ohmn coax back to rear of big shed.     about 400ft  400'

 

ATU  Line OP transformer changed turns to   8 Turns to tranceiver via RG58 coax   20 Turns  to aerial   variable capacitor about 300pf in series to under lawn part.    Now 2.5 :  1

 

1920Hz 5 Watts get -46.5db at dusk into Hack green.    -48.5db at 23:00

20/10/15   Joined a 160M net at 10:00am  Ground wave a bit limited    only OK up to 15Miles.

22/10/15   Measured new loop  2nd aerial.   North leg is 60 paces.  (26/3/16 = 66yds)    20metres is 21.2 paces so multiply paces by 0.9434 to get metres. 60x0.9434= 56.6 metres   Need to add on extra to top of tree of 5M ie= 61.6M = 202'

South leg is 67paces ie 63.2M.   Then add on 8M  (3+5) = 71.2M =  233.6'           Total length of loop= 61.6+71.2= 132.8M  = 436ft   So will need Capacitance to bring to resonance.

30/10/14  Works on 80 & 40 with good swr and signals.

 

4/11/15  Changed LO Transformer to grey  marked 16uH    wired as 20 turns to transceiver 22uH  Q= 5.5    & 41 turns  92uH  to aerial.    but need 2.5 : 1 ratio so need total of 50 turns  ie 9 more.  Now 50. 2.5:1   Top band need 370pf /2.

7/11/15  New grey transformer only getting 1A to aerial & S8 Rx.  Added extra turns using green+orange+yellow wire now 1.5A  S9 Rx. Generally livelier.  Now need 300pf /2  on top band,  same on 80m, and works on 40M but 500pf /2 is better a bit.   Useless on 20 & 15M.     Works  80 40M

13/3/16  Use Sweeden SDR for a good test at night of aerial.   Loop can just hear my signal..  Other UK 1930 net can hear easily.

 

26/3/16   Big loop performance is only fair.  Try half of it as an end fed.      see todo     AR Aerials for FT-857D     3rd  End fed

20/4/16   Big loop  5W 1.9Mhz  FM  into HG  get -47db

 

--------------------------- Extra notes found

web 15   Noted-   The "L" works good because a quarter wave antenna only radiates from the bottom 20%, the rest is only there for loading purposes, so as long as it's there, somewhere, it'll work fine.

If you use a metallic support, like a tower or pushup, be sure to keep the wires about five feet away from it, at least.

 

                                     0            132'        264'      396'          528'                Mine is 436'    N202 + S233.6     just under half waves on each half.

To tune need                 L                 C            L            C

Keep seeing=   To determine the approximate length in feet of a Full Wave Loop antenna use the formula     1005/Freq in Mhz = length in feet.

For 160 meters a full wave loop antenna resonant at 1.9 Mhz would be about 529 feet long.

-----------------------------------  More web sites

http://www.astrosurf.com/luxorion/qsl-propa5.htm        many chapters - good read


26/3/16     3rd ToDo

26/3/16  Measured wire from stream to big shed = 66yds  =  60.35Mtrs  = 198ft    so if OC at far end will need C to tune. Would still have a large I  so better if another 50' longer   ie nearly half wave, almost voltage fed.             So cut wire near seat by collapsed eating apple tree.

Poor performance,  So gave up      & re connected wire near seat.

--------------------------------------   New vertical  on Southern most tree.

9/5/16  Its an easier tree to climb, many more branches.  Put up a vertical.  Wire right at top,   used a hook   Added 3 more wires as a capacity hat.         Further down a big wrap round the tree.   Then near bottom used the drainpipe with wire wrapped helical wound.    Found it needs about 300pf series capacitance in hen hut to tune.  Using multiple earth ground/stream radials.  Seems feed impedance is >50ohms - too high

 

Then did some reading-

web 1  Good info.   Notes=  Series L at bottom or central. Current radiates.  K2AV.    On-Ground Radial Guidelines=  • Don’t use radials longer than the

vertical height of your antenna   –Current distribution makes them not work very well   –If you want to use more wire, add more radials, not longer ones,  More shorter better than few long. My Galvanized wire mesh.

Elevated Radials -   Middle to be >16ft   symetrical

Coax -  RG8  OK

web 9-   Most of the radiation from an inverted-L is low-angle and vertically-polarized. Depending on the length of the horizontal portion, there is a lesser amount radiated at higher angles. This can be very useful for closer-in communications, and does not seriously detract from the overall performance, even for DX.

I purposely made this inverted-L longer than 1/4? on 160. Doing so significantly raises the low feedpoint impedance that a 1/4? inverted-L has (about 17 ohms), and also elevates the point of maximum current. I played with the length in EZNEC and settled on 155' total length.

About 55' is actually vertical. At the bend, the remaining 100' goes through a pulley and gradually slopes down to the east to the end insulator (presently ~20' high) and counterweight through a second pulley, to allow for the trees swaying in the wind. The counterweight is a plastic bucket with drain holes containing enough rocks to tension the antenna to to proper degree.

The two 10' high radials are 132' long. They are oriented N and S; they are not perfectly straight, because I used whatever trees were handy to support them. They are fastened to (but insulated from) the trees by screw-in electric fence insulators. More than two radials would be better; but if they are elevated, you do not need near as many as you would if they were on (or slightly below) the surface of the earth.

 

http://www.w8ji.com/mobile_and_loaded_antenna.htm

http://www.k3bu.us/loadingcoils.htm     Inc  Current distribution

http://topband.contesting.narkive.com/ylxPXRBT/topband-re-160-loaded-vertical-antennas-barry-w9ucw                   temperature as a current taper indicator. !!!

-----------------------------------------------  FCP          K2AV Folded Counterpoise (FCP) on 160M                         Best use with  Amidon T300A-2   #2  material powdered iron toroid core    20 turns sleved bifilar

13/5/16   Made a FCP   using thick plain enameled from big drum  & plastic spreaders.          2 x 33'  4" spacing

Jim, K9YC says that you can feed this with a regular 1:1 current choke – but replace K2AV’s special FCP isolation transformer with a coil.

 

http://lists.contesting.com/_topband/2011-12/msg00394.html                       But it's worse than he thinks.  And don't even consider using ferrites.    The T300A-2 core and 20 bifilar turns were SPECIFICALLY chosen to produce a residual inductance value in the right order of magnitude to cancel a typical residual capacitive reactance from a 160 meter 5/16 wave single wire folded counterpoise, AND provide enough coupling to make the transformer work, AND maintain a low enough loss to operate QRO without heating, or especially to operate QRP without further handicapping the operator with needless loss.  This allows the builder of the "simple solution" to prune the wire to get resonance and remain somewhere around an ELECTRICAL quarter wave radiator.  So this works for T's, L's, U's,  straight verticals, 1/8 wave-ish raised radials and HOA miscellaneous stealth wires.

A T300 form factor is the minimum to wind 20 bifilar turns on the INSIDE diameter.  Twenty turns (forty wires) fills up the inside diameter.  Less than the T300A-2's 22.8 A sub L number (Amidon does not use the decimal point) and residual inductance is reduced and doesn't match the FCP.  Use of a mu of 20 (#1 material) to pull this off on a smaller form factor with fewer turns adds loss, and gets into heating.

FERRITES??  DO NOT use ferrites. This is a transformer, NOT a balun. There is a voltage differential across the winding.  The winding will go lossy.

 We wind up overheating ferrites and cracking.  This is not a balun with guaranteed 100% cancelling counter-currents. Powdered iron is required.

The Amidon T300A-2 can be replaced with a stacked PAIR of Amidon T300-2, with a SINGLE Micrometals T300-2D, or a stacked PAIR of Micrometals T300-2.  You can find the Micrometals cores on eBay.  You CAN use the Amidon T400A-2, but that core is forty bux compared to the T300A-2's sixteen, and I haven't figured the correct smaller number of turns to balance the FCP, and since the T300A-2 does the job, why bother to blow 24 bux?  Maybe for 5kW RF someone needs to do the work.

My specification for results and success of design is predicated on the particular design of isolation transformer.  Move away from that and YOU ARE ON YOUR OWN.  Further, do not be deceived, to use the 5/16 wave FCP, an isolation transformer is REQUIRED.  We ALREADY TRIED using regular balun designs to keep the counterpoise current off the feedline to an FCP.  They do not work in this app.  Been there, done that. With the wrong kind of dirt under the antenna, using a regular balun goes dummy load on you, merely lossy otherwise.  Don't try to feed this with a regular balun and then come back and complain that it didn't work.  OF COURSE it didn't work.  WE DISCOVERED it wouldn't work.  WE TOLD YOU it wouldn't work.

Those of you carefully thinking this through could say that you could use a series reactor AND a regular balun.  Yeah, yeah, BUT this is now a straight inductor on a core WITHOUT any counter-current to cut down on the losses.  So you lose big time on two counts:  First, you only saved the cost of 7.5 feet of teflon on wire vs the isolation transformer, because you STILL had to do core+single winding PLUS it also cost you the balun.  Second, you lost the fairly high percentage of counter-current cancellation using the bifilar winding in the isolation transformer.  So your coil plus regular

balun costs you more loss for QRP and heat for QRO.

If your beef is that it's too hard to make and get the right materials, Balun Designs is making a model 1142s, which you can buy ready-made, now, and does my full specification without any corner cutting. (I have no financial interest in Balun Designs)  http://www.balundesigns.com/servlet/the-108/1-cln-1-High-Isolation-Balun/Detail

This is 160 meters, guys.  You can't use the miniature stuff down here without going lossy.  You're talking about less money than taking the family to a restaurant.  Why bother with cheep cheep.

73, Guy K2AV (the inventor)

 

http://lists.contesting.com/archives//html/Topband/2011-12/msg00639.html              The #2 powdered iron core material has been very carefully chosen for 1.8 MHz QRP and QRO, drawing on advice and published work by W2FMI.  Do not substitute ferrite or other powdered iron materials. #2 powdered iron cores are always painted red and easily identified.  A core without paint or a different color will not work.

 

http://www.dm9ee.de/FCP_info.html    Nice diagram  Shows phasing & connections to Transformer.                FCP hints: Do not use insulated wire! Raindrops on the Radial might detune the FCP because of the isolation. Guy recommends bare wire. I have used enameled Wire (Kupferlackdraht 2mm) for my FCP. I can tell you later how they work and if there is a change in wet weather. I would never use wire with a thick insulation because K2AV warns you NOT to use it. But I had the enameled wire here and I hope that the layer is so thin that there will be no capacity from the raindrops. K2AY also wrote in an email to me, that water/rain does not from drops on bare copper wire. Thats why he recommends BARE wire

 

http://www.balundesigns.com/1-1-fcp-isolation-transformer-2kw-1142s/      85$   1:1 transmission line transformer intended to provide highest possible isolation between input and output.  Consequently there is no direct electrical connection between the input and output with all RF energy being conducted through the massive iron powder core.  This makes the FCP antenna very quiet while also providing the required inductance for matching to the folded counterpoise

 

http://www.iv3prk.it/hc1pf-tx-antenna.htm      Pole vertical

 

http://www.micrometals.com/parts_index.html    Supplier of cores   In USA

 

14/5/16    Transformer  between FCP & aerial.   Note its 1:1 biflar wound 20 turns on a red 3" Powdered iron core.     Note phasing, the two biflar wires, one to coax other to Vertical aerial.     Will Line output transformer work instead of recommended powdered iron.?    Wound one using a LOT, 20 biflar turns = 580uH  D=3 and put in use.  Found adding series capacitance made worse. Note on 9/5  needed series C.

15/5/16  Added roller coaster,  position 5 1/3  better by 1db now on HG -49db    & SWR by rig in house now perfect.   Best HG signal -49db

 

28/5/16  Added more top wire 25' high thru tree to other tree I can climb.    Then 40' towards Oak tree.    Bypassed helical wire on plastic downspout.  Found is still resonant too low.  Put in series C.   29/5/16  Shortened a bit inside south tree.    Very end trimmed a bit, needs shortening more.   Now needs about 400pF for resonance on 1920.    Used Type 191 CA signal generator but a lot of frequency drift when tune C for resonance.  HG -51dB.

 

30/5/16    Shortened on S tree by taking out circle round tree  & taking well away from main stem to S.   Now -50dB.  Still need series 940pF to tune,  found a suitable red HV capacitor,

9/6/16  Did tests of my FET linear.  Only 23W out so not worth moveing to just under aerial.

 

26/6/16   GW3XHG   says use a dipole

 

13/9/16 Added two more vertical wires spread out by 120 degrees up the tree for 30ft.  All 3 connected at bottom to series capacitor  and at the top of S tree  and then on to horz section.    Now need inductance to tune. Used Roller coaster  only about 10 turns.

 

15/10/16  Replaced Roller coaster with a roll of wire - only 10 turns.    Greased all joints ready for winter.


11/9/16   New idea      ToDo    AR long wire   house to S tree               

Use invisible wire.   25 - 40ft high   200ft long.  Could earth in stream.

1mm “DX-Wire”,  copper coated (0.08 mm) steel wire (called “copperweld” or “copperclad steel” in the US), maximal tensional load 450 N (much more robust than pure copper wire, see www.dx-wire.com ).

The DC resistance is about 30% higher than that of pure copper wire, but when used with RF, losses are about the same as with copper because of the skin effect. DX-Wire can easily cope with the legal 750 watts output power. On 1.8 MHz the RF current is flowing in the wire down to a depth of 0.05 mm, on 14 MHz it is just 0.02 mm, i.e. 0.08 mm copper coat is sufficient!

Resistance on topband is 0.114 Ohm/m. Total losses due to resistance of the wire are in the range of 5 % (40 watts at legal power). This will warm up the thin wire a little bid, but does no cause any problems.

It is almost impossible to spot the 1mm wire in distances >20 m. The black-coated type of this wire is the least visible of all. It only gets more visible from time to time during winter,when ice is building on the wire.

 

web 8    bit expensive     £30  165FT 50M HDCW Hard Drawn Copper     16 gauge (1.6mm)


18/10/16     AR Linear for 160M  

FT-857D  gives 100W out, so need 500W to make a meaning full increase in signal strength.     Home made  IFR520 linear give also about 100W.


AR Ferrite cores    Balun

Read somewhere-  A Balun needs 4 or 5 times  the XL over its intended impedance.  Ie using 50 ohms  need 250ohms XL.      Ie on top band need 21uH      

               XL                    250

L   =   -----------     =     ---------                                               = 21uH   for 1.9Mhz    250 ohms.                  Ie on a line OP transformer   input winding need at least 3 turns   4 for safety.

          2 x Pi x F           2 x Pi x1.9x 10 power of 6

 

Google   inductance needed in a balun.    (not Balum)      XL = 2 x Pi x F x L    Reactance = 2 x 3.1416 x Frequency x Inductance

---------------------------------------  Ferrite materials

T-200-2                      FT50-43                FT240-43     big     FT37-43  smallish         fba18e     medium tall

FX1588    Toroid     38mm Outer Diameter,  25mm Inner Diameter     6.3mm Square Thickness   Weight 18grams each   1982           Ferrite rods    Need 15 turns or so to block 3.5Mhz

--------------------------------------------------------  TV  LOT Line output transformer cores

Are a high permeability core material very suitable for 160 & 80M    10 turns ok for a Balun on 160M

Measured inductance using TF2700 - dirty one with enameled wire =in uH  Micro Henries   3Turns= 10uH,,     10T=130uH.       20Turns= 525uH

Bigish one with slots on sides    20Turns= 580uH             D=3      D= 1/Q

Smooth plain one with thick wire=    10Turns=190uH,(1.8=1.8Kohms),     5T=46uH (xL at 1.8Mhz=550ohms),  3T= 17uH   (1.8=203ohms)

On bought at Hack green rally 2015        5T=  50uH    4T= 34uH   3T = 21uH

 

At Top band     20Turns  fills up winding space if biflair  =  580uH  in a LOT        XL =   2 x 3.1416 x 1.9 10+6  x  580 10-6 x  = 6924 Ohms

----------------------------------------------------------------------------  Grey   marked 16uH     G47V64C237     GEZCLEX       About 2" OD

25turns= 25uH  Wound for 436' loop.  Put at bottom of shed.   Outside 20turns = 22uH  Q x1 =5.5  to 50 ohm coax               Inside bit thinner enameled wire  41 turns = 92uH  to aerial  via a variable capacitor.

But is wrong should be 2.5 : 1  see todo

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------    Other cores I have

Got 2" pot cores   used 2 for 160M Linear

Grey 3" torroid   marked 16uh    had   2 x 18 turns     when shorted together in parallel =  17uH      So for top band need  20T

 

MULLARD FERROXCUBE FERRITE POT CORE FX2243        8628K                       Used to have   lots of these.

 

Cylindrical 2cm long     1cm diameter    3 turns= 30uH   so very high permeability.            Got about 6  in ferrites cardboard box in loft

----------------------------------------------------  Read about

LARGE BLUE FERRITE RING TORROID fba18k       

FT140-43  =   Outside diameter (A) = 1,400 at 35.55/mm/-0.75 mm             Inside diameter   (B) ID = 0.900 in/23.0 mm/-0.55 mm                  Height Ht (C) = 0.500 in/12.7 mm +/-0.50 mm

AtL= 885 /-20% uH = (L*2Turns)/1000          Actual measured using 10 turns at #28 computer fair-rite wire

Temperature Stability (ppm/° C) = 12500         Color Code = shiny black

Application Freq Range         Wideband Transformers 5-400 MHz         Power Transformers 0.5-30 MHz      RFI Suppression 5-500 MHz

 

8 x AMIDON FT140-61 LARGE FERRITE TOROID. FAIR-RITE 5961002701 COBWEB, G3TXQ    £20

 

5 x FERRITE RINGS from High Quality Speaker System  A Useful sized good quality ferrite ring.    Removed from an unused high quality speaker system

This is for a pack of 5 rings       Dimensions are external diameter 18mm, internal diameter 10mm and 12mm deep              £6

 

Ferrite ring.  possibly type 43.     Dimensions are external diameter 47mm, internal diameter 27mm, and the 'height' of the ring is 14.5mm. Weight is 85g.      each one= £4

 

5 x FT50-77 AMIDON FERRITE TOROID. FAIR-RITE 5977000301    as used in QRP SWR,     O/s diameter 0.5"    77 mix ferrite            £4.25

---------------------------------------------------------

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   Best supplier of Ferrites

http://www.amidoncorp.com  Saved whold site  on        web 5     I:\cd image\Web site tools\HTTrackwebcopy\Copied\Ferrite Amidon

Also saved best in   C:\D_Documents\Radio Amateur\Ferrite

Web 2    FT-(size)-43     43 Material is used for EMI/RFI suppression in the 20 MHz to 250 MHz range.

61 Material and is designed for inductive applications up to 25 MHz and also suppresses noise frequencies from 200 MHz to 1000 MHz

67 Material is for high Q inductors up to 50 MHz. Suppresses frequencies above 1000 MHz.

68 Material is non-standard and only in stock on a few sizes. High Q up to 100 MHz.

75 material Excellent attenuation from 0.5 MHz to 20 MHz

Ferrite Toroid coil forms for transformers, inductors and RFI suppression.

77 material  An excellent coax choke for 1.8 to 7 MHz can be made by wrapping 16 turns (about 1.5m) of RG]142 Teflon coax, onto an FT]240]43 ferrite toroid.

F Material   High Saturation flux density at high temperature. For power conversion transfomers. Good noise suppression from 0.5 to 20 MHz.

H material     no longer made   Very high permeablity of 15,000.

J material has low volume resistivity and low core loss from 1 KHz to 1 MHz. Used for pulse transformers and low level wideband transformers. Excellent frequency attenuation from 0.5 MHz to 20 MHz.

K material is used primarily in transmission line transformers from 1 MHz to 50 MHz. Our W2FMI baluns and ununs use this material.

W material is a high permeability material used for frequency attenuation from 100 KHz to 1 MHz in EMI/RFI filters.

 

E Core Sets    Set includes 2 Ferrite E Cores and one bobbin.   Permeability 2000

 

0 Material Iron Powder Toroids   Permeability = 1    Frequency Range = 100 Mhz - 300 Mhz     Color = Tan         eg T5-0    T150-0

1 Material  AL Value listed in µH/100Turns      Permeability = 20     Freq. Range = 0.5 Mhz - 5 Mhz     Color = Blue

12 Material    Permeability / µi = 4    Frequency Range = 50 MHz - 200 MHz      Color = Green & White (unless noted)

Also   10 12 17 18 2 15 26 28 3 40 52 6 7 8

 

Pot Core Sets    made from 77 material